As a key economic industry supported by the state, automobile industry is also the main source of air pollution. In today’s era of global appeal for low-carbon life, what our manufacturers should do is to reduce the emissions of automobile exhaust on the premise of ensuring the safety and reliability of automobile performance [19-21]. Among them, automobile body lightweight has reached a unified understanding of reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions in the industry.
Compared with traditional cast iron and steel, aluminum alloy has the characteristics of low density, high strength, good heat dissipation, excellent casting performance, corrosion resistance and easy processing. Since the 1970s, the international oil form is in short supply, and the use of aluminum alloy castings in automobiles has been increasing year by year. In addition to some structural parts, hub mechanism and engine accessories, it is also widely used in the covering parts. Although the cost of aluminum alloy is higher than that of steel, the production process is more complex, and the development trend cannot be changed. In the developed countries of automobile industry, such as Japan, automobile castings account for 76% of the whole aluminum casting industry; in the United States and Europe, even the parts that need alloy steel materials such as bumpers and mailboxes in the traditional processing are all changed to aluminum alloy materials; the aluminum alloy application rate of test vehicles in Germany has accounted for more than 30%.
Aluminum alloy materials have been widely used in automobile parts, among which the most prominent are the cylinder block, cylinder head, automobile shell, radiator, chassis, including the collision system and body plate. These have been accepted by the manufacturers of automobile industry all over the world, and have been constantly applied and changed. It is estimated that there will be 72 million Chinese family cars by 2020. With the development of science and technology, the improvement of forming technology and anti-corrosion technology, aluminum alloy will play a leading role in the automobile industry.