1. Casting quality problems in China
Casting quality is still the primary problem in China’s casting industry. There are many factors affecting casting quality, and many factors are finally reflected in casting quality. The quality of castings in China is uneven and varies greatly, but in general, they are making continuous progress, which is reflected in the improvement of understanding and the change of concept. Most manufacturers have realized that quality is the key to the survival of enterprises, and have begun to deepen their understanding of quality and gradually integrate with the international concept of quality. As a result of the improvement of understanding and concept change, the quality of casting appearance and internal metal structure has been improved, which has strengthened the competitiveness of China’s castings in the domestic and foreign markets.
However, there is a great problem in casting quality in China, that is, the consistency of quality. We have many foundries that can make castings up to international standards, but they are not stable. If the time is longer and the quantity is larger, the consistency of each piece cannot be guaranteed, resulting in rejection by users and huge losses. Another common phenomenon is that resin sand is used to make castings. Although most of the surfaces are smooth, there are always several surface defects.
Therefore, at a time when the casting quality of developed countries has stabilized to a fairly high level of aquatic products and turned to competing for innovation in technology and materials, if we want to keep pace with them, we must take two big steps in a short time: the first step is that the casting quality of most foundries should reach the current international level; The second and more important step is that high quality can always maintain stability and consistency.
2. Level of enterprise management
In the 1970s and 1980s. Domestic foundry workers put forward that “the progress of China’sdepends on technology and management”. Today, the problem remains the same. Many foundries in China have adopted modern technology and advanced equipment, but they can not produce modern quality castings. The reason is management. In many other factories, the scrap rate remains high and the labor productivity is not high. The main reason is also management. Take another look at several excellent foundries. Their common outstanding characteristics are: scientific management and orderly. Therefore, improving management is a key issue in China’s foundry industry.
3. Quality of casting raw and auxiliary materials
For a long time, the poor quality of raw and auxiliary materials has seriously affected the development and progress of China’s foundry industry. Because the quality of raw materials does not meet the requirements, the foundry industry wastes a lot of human, material and financial resources to solve many problems that should not be a problem. The most prominent example is coke. In order to melt metallurgical coke into high-temperature molten iron, the foundry industry has spent more than 30 years to study the furnace type transformation of cupola. Although the effect has been, it has never really solved the problem. Foundry coke was refined in the 1980s, and the foundry easily produced high-temperature molten iron with soil at 1500 ° C. It is proved that the key factor of high-temperature molten iron is coke, not cupola type. In recent ten years, although the material quality has been greatly improved, it still can not meet the requirements of casting, especially in terms of quality stability and consistency.
Such as raw sand, coated sand, resin, clay, cast coke, etc. The improvement of casting material quality can ensure the improvement and consistency of casting quality. Therefore, solving the supply and quality problems of casting raw and auxiliary materials is also an important link to improve casting quality.
4. Environmental protection and labor protection of China’s foundry industry
The labor protection and environmental protection of China’s foundry enterprises have been the weakest link for a long time and have received little attention. In the past ten or twenty years, after extensive contacts with foreign countries, all levels at home have begun to realize the seriousness of these two problems. Casting industry, like electroplating industry and paper industry, has become one of the key objects of labor protection and environmental protection units because of its poor working environment and a large number of dust, harmful gas and noise pollution in the production process. At present, the foundry still located in the city will be forced to close down or move out of the urban area unless it is willing to spend about one-third of the funds equivalent to process equipment for environmental protection facilities. However, as the manager of the foundry enterprise, it should be an unshirkable responsibility to protect the health and environment of employees.
With the progress of society, the regulations on labor protection and environmental protection must be more and more strict. When considering production, foundry enterprises must consider labor protection and environmental protection at the same time, include the investment in both aspects in the investment of the whole project, design, construct and put into operation at the same time.
5. Quality of foundry employees
Many problems about casting quality, production order, quality management, process discipline and so on point to a common root cause: the quality of personnel can not meet the requirements of modern production, which includes the comprehensive quality of culture, technology, knowledge, morality and concept. If people’s comprehensive quality is not improved, it is obviously difficult to lead, master and operate a modern foundry enterprise in the high-tech era. From a long-term point of view, the improvement of personnel’s comprehensive quality is a fundamental strategic issue for the healthy and rapid development of China’s foundry industry. We must attach great importance to people in the industry.
6. Service system of China’s foundry industry
Although the service system related to the foundry industry, including scientific research, training, information and standards, has been basically established, it is still difficult to meet the needs of the rapidly developing foundry market. The main manifestations are as follows: the core technology and key equipment of the foundry industry are still mainly from abroad, and the ability of independent development and technological innovation is poor; Shortage of casting professional technicians and senior skilled workers; The improvement of casting standard system and the integration with international standards and inspection and certification need to be further strengthened; The service system for small and medium-sized foundry enterprises, especially the support system to provide small and medium-sized foundry enterprises with international casting market information, guide and support these enterprises to develop the international market and help these enterprises deal with possible anti-dumping cases and trade barriers, is still basically blank.