Squeeze casting process of magnesium alloy by liquid forming

Squeeze casting, also known as liquid press forging, is an advanced metal casting process that combines the advantages of casting and forging. When applied to magnesium alloys through liquid forming, it can enhance the mechanical properties and surface quality of the final product. Here’s a detailed look at the process:

Squeeze Casting Process of Magnesium Alloy by Liquid Forming

  1. Preparation of Magnesium Alloy Melt:
    • The magnesium alloy is heated until it reaches a molten state. Care must be taken to control the temperature accurately to ensure the quality of the melt.
  2. Die Preparation:
    • The dies used in the process are typically preheated to a specific temperature. This step is crucial for magnesium alloys to avoid rapid solidification upon contact with the die, which can lead to defects.
  3. Pouring the Molten Magnesium Alloy:
    • The molten magnesium alloy is poured into the die. The pouring must be done at the right temperature and speed to ensure proper filling and to minimize turbulence and oxidation.
  4. Application of Pressure:
    • Once the molten alloy is in the die, a high pressure is applied and maintained until the magnesium solidifies. The pressure can range from several megapascals (MPa) to hundreds of MPa, depending on the alloy and the desired properties.
    • The pressure helps reduce porosity, leading to a denser, stronger cast.
  5. Solidification and Ejection:
    • Under pressure, the alloy solidifies. The high pressure is maintained during solidification to ensure a fine-grained microstructure.
    • After solidification, the part is ejected from the die. It generally has a good surface finish and high dimensional accuracy.
  6. Post-Processing:
    • Depending on the application, the cast part may undergo post-processing steps like heat treatment, machining, or surface finishing.

Advantages of Squeeze Casting Magnesium Alloys

  • Improved Mechanical Properties: The process enhances strength, ductility, and toughness.
  • Reduced Porosity: High pressure reduces porosity and increases density.
  • Fine Microstructure: The rapid cooling and high pressure produce a fine-grained microstructure.
  • Enhanced Surface Finish: Produces parts with a superior surface finish compared to traditional casting methods.
  • Dimensional Accuracy: Allows for tight tolerances and minimal shrinkage.


  • Oxidation and Safety: Magnesium can oxidize rapidly when molten. The process must be carefully controlled to prevent oxidation, which can lead to safety hazards.
  • Die Material and Design: The die must withstand high temperatures and pressures. Its design is crucial for the success of the process.
  • Cost: Squeeze casting equipment and dies can be costly, making the process more expensive than conventional casting methods.

Squeeze casting of magnesium alloys is particularly beneficial for applications where lightweight components with high strength and precision are required, such as in the aerospace, automotive, and electronics industries. The process effectively harnesses the lightweight nature of magnesium while enhancing its mechanical properties.

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