Geographical distribution and respective characteristics of China foundry industry

The geographical distribution of China’s casting industry is mainly distributed in five regions, including Henan Province, Liaoning Province, Shandong Province, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta. About half of China’s castings are produced in these five regions.

In the Yangtze River Delta, there are about 6000 casting enterprises, with an annual casting output of 6 million tons, accounting for 1 / 4 of China’s casting output. Among them, there are about 3 million tons per year in Jiangsu Province, 2 million tons per year in Zhejiang Province and 1 million tons per year in Shanghai. This region is one of the regions with the highest technical content and the best quality of casting production in China. It has many state-owned enterprises and their casting industry after transformation. There are more than 5000 private enterprises with strict management and high production efficiency. For example, a group is the largest aluminum alloy wheel manufacturer in Asia, with an annual output value of more than 2 billion yuan. Moreover, the Yangtze River Delta is the foundry industry cluster that attracts the most foreign investment in China. These foreign-funded enterprises have scientific management, advanced technology and good casting quality, such as Kunshan Liufeng Machinery Industry Co., Ltd. invested by Taiwan Liuhe group and Japan Toyota group.

In Shandong Province, the annual output of castings is about 2 million tons. Among the 17 cities in Shandong, the foundry industry in Yantai, Jinan, Weifang, Qingdao and Weihai is relatively developed. This area has a good foundation for scientific research and development. For example, Jinan casting and Forging Machinery Research Institute is a national first-class scientific research institute directly under the former Ministry of machinery industry, and Shandong Machinery Design and Research Institute has strong strength in casting alloy materials and casting technology. Shandong University, Shandong University of science and technology, Shandong Institute of construction and engineering, Shandong University of technology and other colleges have trained postgraduates, undergraduates, higher vocational and technicians in foundry and related majors. Therefore, this region has unique advantages in casting process design and technical training. In addition, the upstream and downstream casting enterprises in Shandong Province form a dense network, which is closely combined from the processing of raw and auxiliary materials to casting production and then to machining. The third typical feature of this region is the high degree of specialization in casting production. Many enterprises have a high degree of specialization and competitiveness. For example, among the top ten in China, Shandong accounts for eight; High density lamp castings, with an annual output of 30000 T; The annual output of vehicle castings in Laiwu reaches 60000 tons; The annual output of precision castings in Dongying reaches 50000 tons.

Henan Province is a province with large foundry resources in China. There are more than 2500 foundry enterprises with an annual output of nearly 3 million tons. Resource advantages have created the emergence of industrial groups. The output of high-quality pig iron (especially pig iron for nodular cast iron), coke (casting coke), electrolytic aluminum, magnesium and magnesium alloy in Henan is the first in China. At the same time, there is sufficient power supply and cheap labor force, and the casting cost is 4% ~ 10% lower than that in eastern provinces. Eastern enterprises have invested and built factories in Henan. The specialization of casting production in Henan Province has initially taken shape. For example, the production of cast iron radiators accounts for about 1 / 4 of the national output. The cast iron radiators in Wuzhi County dominate the market and price trend of radiators in China. The production of cast iron and steel castings is mainly concentrated in Luoyang, Jiaozuo, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou. The production of motor shell is mainly concentrated in Yanshi County, the production of malleable iron castings is mainly concentrated in Luanchuan County, and the production of steel castings is mainly concentrated in Xin’an County. Luoyang Copper processing plant is the most competitive leader in bronze art casting in China and is famous at home and abroad. In addition, the new foundry industry in Henan Province is developing rapidly.

Liaoning’s old industrial base has a development history of more than 50 years, especially the equipment manufacturing industry and metallurgy industry, which occupy an unshakable position in the country. At present, there are more than 1000 casting enterprises, with an annual output of more than 2 million tons of castings. Large scale single piece and small batch industrial clusters are developed in this region, such as heavy-duty production of 120t steel rolling frame and large turbine rotor. In addition, modern mass production enterprises are constantly emerging. For example, six z154 and z146 molding lines and duplex melting process are used to produce brake disc and other castings, ranking first in China, and all products are exported. Support the foundry industry cluster with advanced technology and equipment. In terms of smelting: there are large (40t / h) electric arc furnace and large refining ladle, AOD and VOD refining furnace equipment, which can produce steel castings with special properties such as ultra-low carbon, high alloy, high temperature resistance and pressure resistance; Special performance alloys such as Ti, Zr, Ni, Cr and Co are melted by vacuum smelting technology; Three chamber vacuum furnace and directional crystallization vacuum furnace are used to produce precision castings without surplus. In terms of modeling, Shenyang alone has more than 20 resin sand production lines, some of which are introduced from Japan, Germany and Italy. The problems of dimensional accuracy and surface finish of castings are solved, and the surface quality of large castings is greatly improved. A number of new foundry industry clusters and parks are under construction planning. Shenyang Tiexi casting and Forging Industrial Park has uniformly planned the industrialization base of Shenyang Foundry Research Institute and the casting parts of large enterprises such as Shenzhong, Shengu, Shenkuang and Shenyang foundry to Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and has started construction.

The total annual output of castings in the Pearl River Delta is close to 1 million tons. The first feature of the region is “small products and large industries”. There are about 500 small casting factories producing plumbing equipment, stoves, baths and so on. Among the 19 provinces and cities nationwide, Guangdong has 120 precision casting plants, ranking first in China. There are 600 ~ 700 die casting plants in this area, with an output of more than 300000 t, ranking first in China. The second feature is the formation of industrial clusters of injection molding parts and container corners. The annual output of injection molding machine castings in the province reaches 70000 ~ 100000 tons, and there are 15 such enterprises. Guangdong’s container corner production is the highest in China and even Asia, with a maximum annual output of about 50000 tons. The third feature is that there are many foreign-funded enterprises and large export volume of castings. Foreign foundries and hardware factories dominated by Taiwan and Hong Kong capital are blooming everywhere in the “Pearl River Delta”. It is conservatively estimated that there are hundreds of factories. The output of castings is estimated to be more than 1 / 3 of the total in the region, and has become the most promising new force in the foundry industry in the “Pearl River Delta”. Due to the large proportion of foreign-funded and joint venture casting enterprises, it is estimated that the export volume of castings in the casting industry of the whole province accounts for more than 40% of the total production. It is China’s largest casting export province.